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aureus (VRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant A. Diagram showing the difference between non-resistant bacteria and drug resistant bacteria.Non-resistant bacteria multiply, and upon drug treatment, the bacteria die.Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics has been attributed to a number of causes, including people insisting on antibiotics, physicians prescribing them as they feel they do not have time to explain why they are not necessary, and physicians not knowing when to prescribe antibiotics or being overly cautious for medical and/or legal reasons.

The World Organisation for Animal Health has added to the Terrestrial Animal Health Code a series of guidelines with recommendations to its members for the creation and harmonization of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programs, and recommendations to ensure the proper and prudent use of antibiotic substances.

Another guideline is to implement methodologies that help to establish associated risk factors and assess the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Those on the right are fully susceptible to only three of the seven antibiotics tested.

Resistant microbes are increasingly difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses, both of which may be more expensive or more toxic.

Antibiotic resistance tests: Bacteria are streaked on dishes with white antibiotic-impregnated disks.

Clear rings, such as those on the left, show that bacteria have not grown—indicating that the bacteria are not resistant.

Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily under-dose himself and by exposing his microbes to nonlethal quantities of the drug make them resistant." Antibiotic resistance increases with duration of treatment; therefore, as long as an effective minimum is kept, shorter courses of antibiotics are likely to decrease rates of resistance, reduce cost, and have better outcomes with fewer complications.

Because individuals may feel better before the infection is eradicated, doctors must provide instructions to them so they know when it is safe to stop taking a prescription.

Germany and Sweden also have lower prescribing rates, with Sweden's rate having been declining since 2007.

By contrast, Greece, France and Belgium have high prescribing rates of more than 28 DDD. wrote 506 annual antibiotic scripts for every 1,000 people, with 353 being medically necessary.

Therefore, even if the specific antibiotic is no longer introduced into the environment, antibiotic-resistance genes will persist through the bacteria that have since replicated without continuous exposure.

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