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behaviourist, cognitive, constructivist) and second-language learning theories such as Stephen Krashen's monitor hypothesis.

Hubbard (2009) offers a compilation of 74 key articles and book excerpts, originally published in the years 1988-2007, that give a comprehensive overview of the wide range of leading ideas and research results that have exerted an influence on the development of CALL or that show promise in doing so in the future.

Butler-Pascoe (2011) looks at the history of CALL from a different point of view, namely the evolution of CALL in the dual fields of educational technology and second/foreign language acquisition and the paradigm shifts experienced along the way.

There have been several attempts to document the history of CALL.

Sanders (1995) covers the period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s, focusing on CALL in North America.

CALL began to replace CALI in the early 1980s (Davies & Higgins 1982: p. Such materials may be structured or unstructured, but they normally embody two important features: interactive learning and individualised learning.

CALL is essentially a tool that helps teachers to facilitate the language learning process.

These included gap-filling and Cloze programs, multiple-choice programs, free-format (text-entry) programs, adventures and simulations, action mazes, sentence-reordering programs, exploratory programs—and "total Cloze", a type of program in which the learner has to reconstruct a whole text.

Most of these early programs still exist in modernised versions. Rather than focusing on the typology of CALL, they identified three historical phases of CALL, classified according to their underlying pedagogical and methodological approaches: Most CALL programs in Warschauer & Healey's first phase, Behavioristic CALL (1960s to 1970s), consisted of drill-and-practice materials in which the computer presented a stimulus and the learner provided a response. The computer would analyse students' input and give feedback, and more sophisticated programs would react to students' mistakes by branching to help screens and remedial activities.

In the communicative approach the focus is on using the language rather than analysis of the language, and grammar is taught implicitly rather than explicitly.

It also allows for originality and flexibility in student output of language.

made their appearance in a range of different languages.

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