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He had brought with him a printing press and plant, with the intention of starting a newspaper, and his Australian began to appear shortly after his landing in 1824.

When Wentworth arrived in Sydney he commenced to agitate for the free institutions which he had advocated in his book.

He ordered them to be set to work in irons and to be drummed out of the regiment with every mark of ignominy.

In a book written to scale, on a carefully prepared plan, it was not possible to deal more fully with some events about which various readers might desire to have more information. Cramp, who have produced it, call it an Australasian School Atlas [Note: The maps on pages 22, 79, 119, 221, and 230 are copied from this atlas.](Oxford University Press, 1915); but the author ventures to commend its series of beautiful historical maps (pp. Such a system would have enabled the Government to stifle criticism at pleasure by declining to renew a licence or threatening to do so.

On some of these the author would have liked to write at greater length. 47-54) to any reader of this History who desires to obtain in a convenient form more geographical information than is afforded by the maps herein engraved. LIST OF MAPS CHRONOLOGY LIST OF GOVERNORS AND MINISTERS I. But Chief Justice Forbes refused to certify that such an Act was not repugnant to the laws of England.

At the same time it is hoped that due importance has been given to personality. From these quarrels originated the first measure for the regulation of the Press.

History is a record of the doings of men living in communities, not of blind, nerveless forces. Smarting under the stings of the Australian, Governor Darling in 1827 sought to enact a law under which newspapers could only be issued under periodical licences.

He wished to see the population increased, but he did not disguise his dissatisfaction with the present mode of Government; and he outlined, as necessary reforms, the programme which he was afterwards to promote with all the energy of his virile mind.

But before leaving England he published (1819) a book about New South Wales, wherein he enlarged upon the abundant scope for settlement in the colony.

It is hoped that the bibliographical notes at the end of the volume, brief though they be, will assist the reader, whose thirst is not assuaged by what is to be found within these covers, to go to the wells and draw for himself. Vincent's Gulfs and Kangaroo Island--Meeting with Baudin in Encounter Bay--Circumnavigation of Australia--The name Australia--Flinders in Mauritius--His liberation and death. THE EXTENSION OF SETTLEMENT Baudin's expedition--Effect of French operations--Settlement at Risdon Cove--First Port Phillip Settlement--Foundation of Hobart--Settlement of Port Dalrymple--Napoleon's order to 'take Port Jackson'--Sea power and the security of Australia--The Astrolabe at Westernport--Governor Darling's commission--Alteration of boundaries of New South Wales--Westernport and King George's Sound settlements--Whole of Australia claimed as British territory. THE LAST OF THE TYRANTS Macquarie governor of New South Wales--British military forces sent to Australia--Demand for a council--The emancipist question--The Governor's policy--His difficulties with military officers--Trial by jury--Quarrels with the Bent brothers--Emancipist attorneys--Macquarie's autocracy. THE DAWN OF CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT Uneasiness in England concerning the convict system--Commissioner Bigge's inquiries--New South Wales Judicature Act--The first Legislative Council--Chief Justice Forbes--Enlargement of the Council--Wentworth--His Australian--The Governor and the press--Governor Darling--Trial by jury--Robert Lowe--His Atlas newspaper--His visions of Imperial relations. THE PROBLEM OF THE RIVERS Oxley's explorations on the Lachlan and the Macquarie--Immigration policy--Oxley in Moreton Bay--Foundation of Brisbane--Lockyer explores the Brisbane River--Explorations of Hume and Hovell--Alan Cunningham explores the Liverpool Range--Sturt's explorations--He discovers the Darling--Discovery of the Murray--Its exploration to the sea--The naming of the Murray--Mitchell discovers Australia Felix--The Hentys at Portland. THE FOUNDING OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA Stirling's examination of the Swan River--Proposals for colonization-- Thornas Peel's project--The Peel River colony--The site of Perth--Early difficulties--Peel's failure--Stirling's governorship--Western Australia and the eastern colonies--Shortage of labour--New land regulations--Desire for convict immigrants--A penal colony--Dissatisfaction with the transportation system. SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND THE WAKEFIELD THEORY Wakefield's LETTER FROM Sydney--His theory of colonization--The Colonial Office and Wakefield's Principle--Act to establish South Australia-- Colonists at Kangaroo Island--Colonel Light selects site of Adelaide-- Recall of Governor Hindmarsh--Gawler's governorship--Grey appointed Governor--His reforms. THE PORT PHILLIP DISTRICT The Henty family--Batman in Port Phillip--His 'treaty' with the natives--He determines on 'the place for a village'--Fawkner's party on the Yarra--Official objection to Port Phillip Settlement--Captain Lonsdale takes charge--Bourke names Melbourne--Latrobe appointed superintendent--Batman's reward and death. FROM VAN DIEMEN'S LAND TO TASMANIA Death of Collins and Paterson--Davey Lieutenant-Governor--The rule of Colonel Arthur--The convict system--Macquarie Harbour--Port Arthur-- Bushranging--The black war--Arthur's black drive--Robinson's work among the aboriginals--Irish political prisoners--The Dorsetshire labourers-- Jorgensen--Tasmania named. THE LAND AND THE SQUATTERS Land grants--Who the squatters were--Pastoral districts and licences-- Bourke's policy--Special surveys--The pound per acre system--Gipps's policy--Conquest of Australia by the colonist--Ridley's stripper--Farrer's Federation wheat--John Macarthur and the wool trade--The aboriginals. THE END OF CONVICTISM Sir William Molesworth's committee on transportation--Effect of the committee's report--Order in Council discontinuing transportation to Australia--Effect of new policy--The new prison system--'Pentonvillains'-- Convicts shipped to Port Phillip--Growth of anti-transportation feeling--Gladstone's policy--The Randolph in Hobson's Bay--Resistance to landing of 'exiles'--Lord Grey and the colonies. SELF-GOVERNMENT Sir Charles Fitzroy 'Governor-General'--The Act for the Government of New South Wales--The Legislative Council--Boundaries of districts-- Dissatisfaction in Port Phillip--Earl Grey elected member for Melbourne--Colonial self-government--Australian Colonies Government Act--The naming of Victoria--Inauguration of self-government--Wentworth's new constitution--His proposed house of baronets--The Victorian constitution--Responsible government. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES APPENDIX The original plan for a settlement of small holdings--The growth of large estates--Organization on capitalist basis--Rise of trade unions--Effect of gold discoveries on social conditions--The growth of trade unions after 1850--The depression of the 'nineties and the 'Great Strikes'--The growth of industrial arbitration and the rise of the Labour Party--William Lane and 'New Australia! Chief Justice Forbes, who continued to hold his office till 1836, proved a stout friend to the liberalizing process which was now at work in New South Wales when he refused to sanction the newspaper licensing measure; and his sympathies throughout were with Wentworth in his campaign for the introduction of free institutions.

An excellent Australasian Atlas, published while this book was in preparation, has been found useful by the author. --The development of a 'middle class'--The growth of social services--Education, health and social welfare--The standard of living in Australia. The establishment of trial by jury in a colony populated chiefly by convicts was from the beginning seen to be a serious difficulty.

Title: A Short History of Australia Author: Ernest Scott (1868-1939) PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE * A Project Gutenberg of Australia e Book * e Book No.: 0200471Language: English Date first posted: July 2002 Date most recently updated: July 2002 This e Book was produced by: Colin Choat Project Gutenberg of Australia e Books are created from printed editions which are in the public domain in Australia, unless a copyright notice is included. One of them, named Sudds, whose iron collar was 'too small for his neck,' seems to have been ill at the time, and he died in hospital a few days later.

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