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As a network engineer, we can garuentee you there will come a point in your career where you must upgrade the Cisco IOS on a Router or Switch.
ROM contains a bootstrap program called ROM Monitor (or ROMmon). If it finds these commands, it will run boot system commands in order they appear in startup-config to locate the IOS. If the IOS is not found in Flash, the bootstrap can try to load the IOS from TFTP server or from ROM (mini-IOS). If no TFTP server responds, the router enters Setup Mode (Initial Configuration Mode).
When a router is powered on, the bootstrap runs a hardware diagnostic called POST (Power-On Self Test). And this is the process we can see on our screen when the router is turned on: In short, when powered on the router needs to do: 1.
Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM): NVRAM holds the router’s startup configuration file.
NVRAM contents are not lost when the router is powered down or reloaded.
Someone needed the skills to reverse-engineer ROMMON, and the resources to suborn sysadmins into installing the malicious image into their networks.
"In all cases seen by Cisco, attackers accessed the devices using valid administrative credentials", the note states, meaning someone back-tracked the attack to the admin account used.Now comes the trivial yet tricky part : How to activate the image.A quick look at the boot vars show which image will be used.The company points to three white papers so users of Cisco IOS Classic platforms can refresh themselves on how to harden devices against such an attack: Cisco IOS Software Integrity Assurance, Cisco Guide to Harden IOS Devices, and Telemetry-Based Infrastructure Device Integrity Monitoring.It doesn't take a fevered imagination to suggest a pretty sophisticated actor is involved here.Admins – with appropriate credentials, naturally – need to be able to drop new ROM images on their kit as a matter of course.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating